Figure-Ground. Created in Adobe Illustrator with pen, shape, and line tools, duplication, and rotation.

Gestalt principles. Created in Adobe Illustrator with pen tool, duplication, and scaling.

Crystallographic symmetry. Created in Adobe Illustrator with shape tool using duplication and rotation.

Formal symmetry. Created in Adobe Illustrator with pen tool and perspective grid.

Contrast. Created in Adobe Illustrator with the shape and line tools.